Air Pollution and Inequality

Trinity Colon grew up thinking that everyone had asthma and that it was normal to wipe the soot off your windows at the start of summer. She now realizes that 100,000 people die every year from preventable pollution related illnesses.

Source: EPA

Pollution is killing Americans in every single state. Our factories cough particles into the air, our cars sputter smog into our communities, and our industries ravage the forests that could reduce the spread of harmful greenhouse gases. Scientists and environmentalists often talk about destroying the only pale blue dot that we have, but we spend less time discussing the human death toll as a result of pollution.

New data analysis shows that 100,000 Americans die each year from air pollution related illnesses. This means that more Americans die from air pollution than die from gun violence and car accidents combined. Not all Americans endure this risk equally though — your hometown sheds light on these risks.

Every red spike on the chart above is an American manufacturing plant that has registered with the EPA for spewing toxic chemicals into the air. The height of the spike is how many pounds a single plant expels. Specifically, the data was gathered from a little known part of the EPA’s website known as the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). In 1986, Congress implemented Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) which created the TRI Program, thereby helping communities have transparency into the release of toxic chemicals into the nearby air. The TRI is now mainly used to ensure that plants, counties, and states aren’t violating any rules.

Source: Science News

In 2020, 37,000 plants registered in the TRI for releasing toxic chemicals into the air, ground, and water.

Manufacturing Pollution

Elkhart County, Indiana has some of the most cancerous air in the country. Elkhart is fondly known as The RV Capital of the World, but the plants that manufacture the fiberglass-intensive RVs spew nearly 1 million pounds of carcinogenic pollutants into the air every year. This puts the Elkhart inhabitants at much higher risk of lung cancer and early death.

Unfortunately, Elkhart is just one of many counties in America where the community of workers who live nearby to the plants suffer the most from the pollution caused by their companies. Better Way Products, a manufacturing plant in Elkhart that specializes in fiberglass production, is the worst polluter in the county, producing 300,000 pounds of carcinogenic styrene every year. Elkhart’s 200,000 residents primarily work at plants like Better Way where they spend their days around toxic materials, go to sleep in neighborhoods full of toxic air, and send their children to schools adjacent to toxic plants.

Residents of Elkhart Indiana get lung cancer at a rate 26% higher than the national average and the state overall ranks 46th for lung cancer diagnoses. Indiana is also 1 of only 4 states that does not track survival rates for lung cancer after diagnosis.

The American Lung association gives Elkhart a grade of “F” for failing to have appropriate air quality.

Children walking home from school in California — Source: Salud America

Although Elkhart is the worst county overall for carcinogenic air pollution, Pottawatomie, Kansas is home to the single worst polluting factory in America. The Onyx Collection releases 664,000 pounds of cancer-causing particles into the air each year, and while you may not have heard of Pottawatomie, you definitely know Onyx. You may have seen their product in TV shows, showered in an Onyx shower, washed your hands in an Onyx sink, or put your soap down on an Onyx countertop since they provide these materials to nearly every major hotel line in the country.

Pollution protestors in the South side of Chicago — source: The Guardian

This problem is not isolated to manufacturing towns — on the Southeast side of Chicago, Trinity Colon grew up thinking it was normal for everyone to have asthma. She was born in the shadow of industrial plants in Chicago that forced her family to always keep their windows shut even on hot summer days. She remembers the rituals of wiping dirt off windows or the twice-annual-drive to the doctor when her bronchitis acted up. Colon is currently on a hunger strike in the Southeast side of Chicago to protest the creation of a toxic metal shredding site in the neighborhood, which would sit right next to two nearby Superfund sites.

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2016 data

Black families tend to live in these polluted areas at much higher rates than White families. According to Quartz, more than half of the 9 million people living near hazardous waste sites are people of color, and Black Americans are three times more likely to die from exposure to air pollutants than White Americans. Latinx children are twice as likely to die from Asthma than White children. This inequality is so prevalent that The Guardian launched an entire series on Environmental racism to highlight America’s dirty divide. It is also important to note that these facilities are often built intentionally in minority neighborhoods — it isn’t the case that White families move away. A University of Michigan study found “a consistent pattern over a 30-year period of placing hazardous waste facilities in neighborhoods where poor people and people of color live.”

Wildfire Pollution

Although industrial production is a major cause of air pollution, wildfires have also exacerbated this issue. 52,113 wildfires burned 8.9M acres in North America in 2020, double the wildfire acreage burn in 2019. In terms of land area, this means wildfires effectively burned down the entire state of Maryland.

Grey regions indicate no data

Scott Johnson and his wife, Marybeth Cardin, saw these wildfires first hand when they jumped from a 50-foot cliff to escape flames in Oregon. They hid behind a boulder, grabbing it for warmth, until the fires subsided and they could come back to safety. When they climbed a tree root back up to their house, the plot was empty and the earth was scorched.

Source: Twitter

Oregon had some of the worst air quality in the world in 2020 due to unprecedented wildfires. Politicians, climate activists, and firefighters knew that the climate in Oregon was getting hotter and drier, but plans failed to clear dangerous regions or hire more staff to put out fires. When wildfires broke out in the summer, they ravaged nearly every county in the state. 9 people died, thousands more were injured, and property damaged skyrocketed into the millions. Air quality in Oregon worsened when the Oregon smoke was redoubled by the smoke from the California wildfires that swept back onshore after blowing out over the Pacific Ocean. By the end of the year, 57,000 wildfires had produced uninhabitable air quality for millions of Americans across the country, a 14% increase from the previous year.

The Path Forward

I’m not going to pretend I know the best solutions for curbing pollution. This environmental space is full of brilliant minds who have been making incredible headway on this problem for decades. Instead, I want to present some ideas for how we can help communities most at risk of pollution-related deaths.

Source: New York Times

Increase fines for violating the TRI — Companies do not pay enough for destroying our Pale Blue Dot and creating health risks in our communities. Across the state of New York where I grew up, 1,362 companies received environmental fines over the last 5 years, paying on average $12,000 for each fine. The New York manufacturing industry makes billions of dollars each year and often tries to litigate away these fines. The US should take notes from the European Union here which has increased the fines levied against companies for violation environmental standards, but most importantly, the EU also ties these fines to how many lives could have been saved by decreasing pollution. In a 2017 European Environmental Bureau report, EU commissioners show that “78,000 additional lives could be saved by the new environmental rules if correctly implemented.” Additionally, fines and penalties should increase in severity, similar to America’s three-strike rule from criminalization.

Stop cutting corners for fighting fires — America’s firefighting strategy is currently broken in three different ways. Firefighters are underfunded and under-resourced. The United States Forest Service (USFS) spends $2.4 billion each year on “wildland fire management” and hire an additional 12,000 seasonal firefighters to help with fires in the hottest points in the year. This seasonal hiring has meant that many of the new recruits are often under-trained, and full-time USFS firefighters make only $30,000 per year, even after working thousands of hours of overtime. States at high-risk of fires should receive more federal funding to pay firefighters more and invest more in training the staff they have.

Reduce the reliance on inmate labor for fighting fires — America needs to stop using inmate labor to fight fires. For the last 80 years, California has relied on its massive prison population to fight fires. These inmates are paid $1 per hour conducting one of the most dangerous jobs in America. In 2017, 1 out of 9 firefighters that put out a burn in California was an inmate. Although Governor Gavin Newsom recently signed Assembly Bill 2147 which would help inmates get their records expunged in return for fighting fires, we should not create a system where the safety of our communities rests of inmate labor and the freedom of those inmates should not rest on whether they decide to risk their lives to put out fires.

Fight fires before they erupt— states can spend more in clearing dry brush during the offseason that acts as explosive kindling when wildfires do emerge. If forest staff clear brush 100 feet away from a house, it can improve the house’s chance of survival by 8-fold. California passed a bill in January 2019 to clear 90,000 acres of brush and thin trees, but this is too small of a fraction compared to the 4.7 million acres that burned in fires that year. Prior to 1800, Native Americans would intentionally burn 2.2 million acres in controlled fires away from where people lived.

With all that said, let’s not miss the forest for the trees when it comes to fighting fires — there wouldn’t be as many fires if our planet weren’t getting so hot. While America curbs the spread of dangerous greenhouse gases, firefighters in the meantime need to have more trucks, more personnel, and more safety equipment for fighting fires.

Lessons from John Lewis

The late Congressman John Lewis warned:

“When we take our air, waters and land for granted; when we show a simple lack of respect for nature and our environment, we unmake God’s good creation. Humanity is the most important endangered species under threat from climate change and yet we flood our ecology with poisons and pollution.”

Congressman Lewis understood the connection between environmental rights and human rights, and the EPA thus honored him with the “Environmental Justice Champion” award in 2014. Let’s answer Congressman Lewis’s call to protect our environment and the communities most at threat — let’s properly penalize the companies that destroy our air, let’s stop the fires from burning our homes, and let’s reduce the pollution that kills 100,000 vulnerable members of our communities every year.

MIT Grad Speaker 2020, now writing about inequality || follow along @

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